3D Brain Models

BioDigital Human is a virtual 3D body that brings thousands of anatomy objects and health conditions to life in an interactive web-based platform.

Housed within the protective covering of the skull, the brain is the most complex organ in the body. It controls thought, behavior, emotions, and memory, as well as basic life functions such as breathing and heart rate.

The brain's surface, called the cerebral cortex, is folded into a series of gyri (hills) and sulci (valleys). These features increase the amount of neurons (brain cells) that can fit within the skull.

The outer portion of the cortex is made of grey matter, which contains the cell bodies of neurons. The inner portion is made of white matter, which contains the insulated neuron projections called axons.

Positioned below the cortex and behind the brainstem, the cerebellum is finely folded into a series of gyri and sulci similar to the cortex. Primarily responsible for motor control, the cerebellum controls balance and movement.

Within the cerebrum near the midline of the brain, deep structures include the basal ganglia (caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus) and thalamus. The basal ganglia structures are responsible for fine motor control, while the thalamus relays sensory and motor information to the cortex.

Spaces within the brain, called ventricles, contain cerebrospinal fluid. Cerebrospinal fluid serves as a cushion and shock-absorber, and aids in chemical communication between neurons.

The outer portion of the cortex is made of grey matter, which contains the cell bodies of neurons. The inner portion is made of white matter, which contains the insulated neuron projections called axons.

Spaces within the brain, called ventricles, contain cerebrospinal fluid. Cerebrospinal fluid serves as a cushion and shock-absorber, and aids in chemical communication between neurons.

The brain is the main organ of the nervous system. It is located in the head, protected by the skull. Much of the size of the brain comes from the cerebral cortex, which is a thick layer of neural tissue that covers most of the brain. This layer is folded in a way that increases the amount of surface that can fit into the volume available. The pattern of folds is similar across individuals, although there are many small variations.

The prefrontal cortex is the most anterior (front) part of the frontal lobe within the brain. It extends across the area of the brain directly behind the forehead and is responsible for executive functions such as decision making, impulse control, problem solving, social interaction, and personality.

Damage to the neurons or tissue of the frontal lobe can lead to personality changes, difficulty concentrating or planning, and impulsivity.

The frontal lobe is the most anterior (front) part of the brain. It extends from the area behind the forehead back to the precentral gyrus.

As a whole, the frontal lobe is responsible for higher cognitive functions such as memory, emotions, impulse control, problem solving, social interaction, and motor function.

Damage to the neurons or tissue of the frontal lobe can lead to personality changes, difficulty concentrating or planning, and impulsivity.

Characterized by progressive memory loss and decreasing brain function, Alzheimer's disease is the most common form of dementia in older adults.

In people with Alzheimer's disease, genetic and environmental factors cause abnormal protein deposits to build up in the brain. These deposits impair the function of neurons, causing them to lose connections with other brain cells and die.

Cell death in Alzheimer's disease leads to the atrophy (shrinking) of brain tissue. This primarily affects the areas responsible for memory and higher-level thinking, such as the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. As a result of brain atrophy, the spaces in the brain, called ventricles, grow larger.

Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory disease that affects the central nervous system. MS is characterized by visible brain lesions called plaques.

While the location of MS plaques can vary, they are frequently symmetrical and tend to affect areas of white matter adjacent to the brain’s ventricles. Specific plaque locations cause the neurological symptoms associated with MS, including vision disturbances, muscle weakness, and cognitive deficiencies.

Embolism blockage in cerebral artery or a stroke is a medical emergency. Strokes happen when blood flow to your brain stops. Within minutes, brain cells begin to die. There are two kinds of stroke. The more common kind, called ischemic stroke, is caused by a blood clot that blocks or plugs a blood vessel in the brain. The other kind, called hemorrhagic stroke, is caused by a blood vessel that breaks and bleeds into the brain. 'Mini-strokes' or transient ischemic attacks (TIAs), occur when the blood supply to the brain is briefly interrupted. (source - NIH Medline Plus)